This is the documentation for version 0.39. For documentation on the latest version of kpt, please see

Substitute values into fields

Customize a local package by substituting values into fields.

Dynamic needs for packages are built into tools which read and write configuration data.


kpt cfg set, setters, substitutions, Kptfile

Substitutions are like setters, but instead of setting a entire field value, they use setters to set only parts of a field value. – e.g. only set the tag portion of the image field.

  • Substitutions are defined in OpenAPI definitions
  • OpenAPI is referenced from configuration through field line comments
  • Substitutions are performed by running kpt cfg set

Because setters are defined using data as part of the package as OpenAPI data, they don’t need to be compiled into the tool and can be created for an instance of a package without modifying kpt.

To see more on how to create a substitution: create substitution guide

Substitutions explained

Following is a short explanation of the command that will be demonstrated in this guide.

Data model

  • Fields reference substitutions through OpenAPI definitions specified as line comments – e.g. # { "$kpt-set": "my-substitution" }
  • OpenAPI definitions are provided through the Kptfile
  • Substitution OpenAPI definitions contain patterns and values to compute the field value

Command control flow

  1. Read the package Kptfile and resources.
  2. Change the setter OpenAPI value in the Kptfile
  3. Locate all fields which reference the setter indirectly through a substitution.
  4. Compute the new substitution value by substituting the setter values into the pattern.
  5. Write both the modified Kptfile and resources back to the package.


  1. Fetch a remote package
  2. List the setters
  3. Substitute a value

Fetch a remote package

Fetch Command

export SRC_REPO=
kpt pkg get $SRC_REPO/package-examples/helloworld-set@v0.3.0 helloworld

Grab the setters package, which contains setters and substitutions.

Fetch Output

fetching package /package-examples/helloworld-set from to helloworld

List the setters

List the setters – find the image-tag setter. When set it will perform a substitution.

There is no command to list substitutions because they are not invoked directly, but are instead performed when a setter referenced by the substitution is invoked.

Substitutions can be found by looking in the Kptfile under openAPI.definitions, and identified in configuration through referencing a definition with the prefix io.k8s.cli.substitutions.

In this example the substitution name and setter name happen to match, but this is not required, and substitutions may have multiple setters.

List Command

kpt cfg list-setters helloworld/ --include-subst

List Output

    NAME      VALUE       SET BY             DESCRIPTION        COUNT
  http-port   80      package-default   helloworld port         3
  image-tag   0.1.0   package-default   hello-world image tag   1
  replicas    5       package-default   helloworld replicas     1
  ------------   ------------------------------------------   ----------
  SUBSTITUTION                      PATTERN                       REFERENCES
  image-tag   [image-tag]

Substitute a value

Package contents

# helloworld/deploy.yaml
kind: Deployment
 name: helloworld-gke
      - name: helloworld-gke
        image: # {"$kpt-set":"image-tag"}


 kpt cfg set helloworld/ image-tag v0.2.0

Change the tag portion of the image field using the image-tag setter.


set 1 fields

Updated package contents

kind: Deployment
 name: helloworld-gke
      - name: helloworld-gke
        image: # {"$kpt-set":"image-tag"}

Customizing setters

See setters and substitutions for how to add or update them in the package Kptfile.

Last modified November 9, 2020: docs: consumer guide nits and fixes. (0afc440d)